Hair Coloring

semipermanent

semipermanent hair color is similar to temporary hair color. The difference is the size of the pigment molecule

chemical structure:

semipermanent is made of large and medium pigment molecules. The pigment is finished and there is no need of developer.
The dye molecules are natural (brown, black or blond).
We using semipermanent hair color straight from the bottle.
this color is good for tonal changes and to use on relaxing and wave without changing the chemical structure.

demipermanent

demipermanent hair color needs a developer and some of the product types contain small traces of ammonia.
This product can produce small amounts of lift if there is alkaline.

chemical structure:

demipermanent color needs developer, the pigment molecule is unfinished and needs the developer to develop the dye molecule. Without the developer the pigments are invisible.
demipermanent products contain alkaline agents like ammonia.

However these products are ideal for any coverage and extreme tonal changes.

The pH of this product category ranges from an acid to an alkaline.

permanent (lift and deposit)

This product will penetrate the hair shaft and the cortex.

When using permanent color we need to think about the underlying pigment.

chemical structure:
single process contain ammonia or an ammonia like substance which will create lift when mixed with a developer. The created chemical reaction is called oxidation.

Oxidation is a combination of the ammonia in the product and the oxygen in the developer (hydrogen peroxide).

The higher the level of the color the more ammonia is present and the higher the volume of the developer the more oxygen is present.

If we use on level 6 a 10 volume we can lift one level. If we use 30 volume we can lift 3 levels.

The more oxygen is present in the developer the more ammonia is stimulated in the product.

The pigment molecules in permanent hair color are small. The pigment colors usually range from opaque to translucent. Minimum of developing is 35 minutes, 20 minutes for lifting and 15 minutes for depositing.

Underlying pigments

level
1 black
2 brown black
3 red darkest brown
4 red dark brown
5 red brown
6 red orange light brown
7 orange dark blonde
8 yellow orange blonde
9 yellow light blonde
10 pale yellow very light blonde

Complimentary colors

The primary colors are : RED, YELLOW and BLUE.

A primary color is a color that cannot be achieved by mixing any other color colors together, they are the base colors.
When you mix complimentary colors together, they neutralize each other.

The secondary colors are : VIOLET, GREEN and ORANGE.
They are created by mixing the primary colors together.

Color pigmentation must be equalized for balance.

In hair coloring these three secondary colors are the key to control or rebalance the color, it is controlled by simply putting back the primary color.

For example:
• to correct blue add orange,
• to correct green add blue,
• to correct violet add yellow.

Adding violet to yellow to correct unwanted yellow from gray or silver. Because blue is the hardest to retain, any fading action in natural or tinted hair begins to produce red and yellow tones as a result of lessen the color blue.

Endless combination of hair coloring are controlled easily by using the basic primary and secondary colors. This control is almost always achieved with the use of fillers which contain all of the basic colors necessary. Using the fillers for this control eliminates the frequent mistake of bleaching out undesired tones.

The distribution of natural pigments

All natural hair colors have eumelanin and pheomelanin pigments. It is the distribution of these natural pigments that produce the different natural hair colors. These two groups of pigments known as melanin.

eumelanin
this group of natural pigments is dark brown to almost black color.

pheomelanin
this group of natural pigments are red, yellow, which are usually smaller and contain an considerable amount of iron (warmth)

Distribution:
If there is a greater distribution of eumelanin and pheomelanin in the cortex, the natural hair color will be in the dark brown category. If there is less amount of eumelanin and pheomelanin it will fall into the blonde category.

When lightening natural hair color, the eumelanin is removed first. Once the eumelanin has dissipated, it leaves the pheomelanin pigments, which is why all permanent colors create warmth in the hair.

RED-YELLOW           pigment  pheomelanin
BROWN-BLACK      pigment  eumelanin

light blonde – few brown- black pigments
few red- yellow pigments
dark blonde – more brown- black pigments
more red- yellow pigments
natural red – few brown- black pigments
many red- yellow pigments
dark brown – many brown- black pigments
few red- yellow pigments

pH AND THE HAIR

Water is considered a natural substance. A very small fraction of the water molecules are broken down into their constituent ions which are positively charged hydrogen ions and negatively charged hydroxide ions.

Pure water contains equal numbers of hydrogen ions and hydroxide ions and this condition of equality is what we mean by neutral.

alkaline have a pH of more than 7 and the higher the pH the more alkaline (or less acid0 there is

Ammonia- opens the hair with the developer and lightens the hair, then it lets the pigments get into the hair to fill it with the color.